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Polypodium vulgare, is fern that typically grows of rocky slopes and does not need well-developed soil. It is rich in active ingredients such as polypodine A or polypodine B. In skin, polypodine A shortens the duration of skin repair after superficial wounds. It also stimulates keratinocyte differentiation: treatment with polypodine A increased the number of cell layers and induced a higher degree of epidermal differentiation with a more regular in-vitro architecture. The active ingredients of fern also possess the ability to prevent onset of oxidative stress and enzyme-related skin damage: they possess strong inhibitory activity against collagenase (collagen degrading enzyme) and free radicals. They also have a potent ability to chelate iron ions, which are catalysts for oxidative reactions.